Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of the ho

  • Detail

Analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of lead-acid battery

lead acid battery is the earliest secondary battery in industrialization. It has been 150 years since its invention in 1859, but the development of this industry is still in the ascendant

lead acid battery is the battery with the largest market share and the widest range of use in chemical batteries, especially in the application fields of starting and large-scale energy storage, which is difficult to be replaced by other new batteries for a long time. The price of lead-acid battery is low, and it has the comparative advantages of mature technology, excellent high and low temperature performance, stability and reliability, high safety, good resource reuse and obvious market competitive advantage

compared with other battery metal materials, lead resources are relatively rich. Lead reserves and recycled lead ensure the sustainable development of the lead-acid battery industry for a relatively long time. Lead acid batteries are widely used, which will not cause a shortage of lead resources for a long time. The disadvantages of lead-acid batteries are: low energy density and short cycle life. Lead, the main raw material, is a kind of toxic substance. There is a risk of lead pollution in the process of battery production and renewable lead processing. Poor management may cause harm to the environment and human health

with the breakthrough of new technologies and the application of new structures, the continuous advent of advanced lead-acid batteries such as lead-carbon batteries, bipolar batteries, non lead grid batteries has changed the shortcomings of low mass energy ratio and short cycle life. With the gradual improvement of laws and regulations and the improvement of management level, the risk of lead pollution can also be prevented and controlled. It injects new vitality into the sustainable development of lead-acid battery industry. In the future, lead-acid batteries will still play an important role in backup power, energy storage, starting, power and other application fields

comparative advantages and disadvantages of lead-acid batteries

(1) comparative advantages of lead-acid batteries

① comparative advantages of performance

at present, large-scale industrialized secondary batteries mainly include lead-acid batteries, cadmium nickel batteries, nickel hydrogen batteries and lithium-ion batteries. Cadmium nickel batteries contain highly toxic element cadmium, which has been gradually replaced by other batteries. At present, the most widely used batteries in the market are lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion batteries and nickel hydrogen batteries

compared with other secondary batteries, lead-acid batteries mainly have the following performance comparative advantages:

a, batteries with the longest time to achieve industrial production and the most mature technology have stable, reliable and good applicability

b. dilute sulfuric acid is used as electrolyte, which is non combustible. The battery is designed under normal pressure or low pressure, which has good safety

c, high operating voltage and wide operating temperature range, suitable for high rate discharge applications such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV)

d, it can be used for floating charging, with excellent shallow charging and shallow discharging performance. It is suitable for uninterruptible power supply (UPS), new energy storage, peak shaving and valley filling, etc

e. The technology of high-capacity battery is mature, and it can be made into a battery of thousands of ampere hours, which provides convenience for large-scale energy storage

② cost comparative advantage

lead acid battery is the cheapest secondary battery, and the price per unit energy is about 1/3 of lithium ion battery or nickel hydrogen battery. In addition, the main components of lead-acid batteries are lead and lead compounds. The lead content is up to more than 60% of the total mass of batteries. The residual value of waste batteries is high, and the recycling price is more than 30% of that of new batteries. Therefore, the comprehensive cost of lead-acid batteries is lower

③ comparative advantages of recycling

lead acid battery has simple composition, mature regeneration technology and high recycling value. It is the easiest battery to realize recycling and recycling. The global output of recycled lead has exceeded that of primary lead. The lead reuse rate of waste lead-acid batteries in the United States has exceeded 98.5%, and the reuse rate of waste lead-acid batteries in China has also reached more than 90%. Nickel cadmium batteries, nickel hydrogen batteries and lithium-ion batteries are mostly small batteries with complex composition, high regeneration cost and great difficulty in recycling. It is difficult for the recycling industry to realize market-oriented operation. At present, the average recycling proportion of the above-mentioned batteries in the world is less than 20%, especially lithium-ion batteries. Most countries still have broad market prospects for utilization, and effective recycling and regeneration have not been achieved

(2) deficiencies of lead-acid batteries

① low energy density

the mass and volume energy density of traditional lead-acid batteries are low, and the energy density is only about 1/3 of lithium-ion batteries and about 1/2 of nickel hydrogen batteries, and the volume is large, which is not suitable for use in light weight and small volume occasions. In the future, there is still much room to improve the energy density of lead-acid batteries, especially foam carbon and other lead-acid batteries with new materials and technologies

comparative advantages and disadvantages of lead-acid batteries

② the cycle life is relatively short

the cycle life of traditional lead-acid batteries is relatively short, and the theoretical cycle times are about 1/3 of lithium-ion batteries. There is still much room to improve the cycle life of lead-acid batteries, especially lead-acid batteries with new materials, new structures and new technologies, such as bipolar lead-acid batteries, lead-carbon batteries, etc

③ there is a risk of lead pollution in the industrial chain

lead is the main raw material of lead-acid batteries, accounting for more than 60% of the battery quality, and the global lead consumption of lead-acid batteries accounts for more than 80% of the total lead consumption. Lead is a heavy metal. The lead-acid battery manufacturing industry chain (including primary lead smelting, battery manufacturing, battery recycling, and recycled lead smelting) has a high risk of lead pollution. Poor management will cause pollution to the environment and harm human health

4. Lead acid battery and environmental protection

lead acid battery manufacturing is the main industry using lead. Its industrial chain has lead pollution risks in primary lead smelting, battery production, waste battery recycling, and recycled lead smelting, but the lead pollution in the whole process of the industrial chain can be effectively controlled. The technology for prevention and control of lead pollution is relatively mature. A complete set of technologies and equipment related to primary lead and recycled lead smelting can be provided abroad. Domestic lead smelting technology is basically mature, including the manufacture of lead-acid batteries. As long as advanced environmental protection equipment is configured according to specifications and the environmental protection equipment operates normally, lead pollution events will not occur. In the field of lead-acid battery manufacturing, advanced clean, automated and mechanized production equipment, as well as advanced environmental protection technology and equipment, have been widely used, so that lead smoke, lead dust and lead compounds in water can be effectively treated, and lead pollution can be effectively controlled

advanced production processes include: one furnace multi machine grid casting process, lead ingot cold cutting technology, automatic wrapping and brushing, internalization process, etc. Advanced environmental protection processes include: high-efficiency pulse lead dust processor, multistage wet lead smoke processor, alkali spray acid mist processor, wastewater reuse system, etc. In the past, the frequent lead pollution incidents in China were mainly caused by the imperfection of relevant regulations and policies and the lack of whole process management

it is mainly manifested in five aspects:

first, the disorderly competition among smelters, especially small smelters and illegal smelters, in order to compete for the market at low prices, adopt the method of indigenous smelting, and there are no environmental protection facilities or the facilities are not operating normally; Even some large smelters, in order to reduce costs, have environmental protection treatment irregularities, and the maximum size must not be greater than, mm, causing pollution incidents in primary lead enterprises

second, there are a large number of small factories in the lead-acid battery manufacturing industry. Their production equipment is backward, and they cannot be equipped with complete and advanced environmental protection equipment and health protection facilities, which is not conducive to environmental protection and resource utilization

third, lead-acid battery recycling is completely in an unorganized recycling state, which is an important link causing lead and acid pollution

fourth, a large number of waste batteries flow to small renewable lead plants, resulting in frequent environmental pollution events due to out of control link management

fifth, there is a risk of cadmium pollution in power lead-acid batteries

the United States is also one of the largest producers of lead-acid batteries in the world, with an annual consumption of more than 2 million tons of lead. Due to sound laws and regulations and effective measures to control lead pollution, the closed cycle of lead use has been realized, and the "life to death" tracking has been implemented from primary lead smelting, battery manufacturing, and recycled lead smelting. Producers, transporters, operators, product owners, and governments at all levels "share their responsibilities", The lead pollution in the lead-acid battery industry chain has been effectively controlled

in recent years, with the gradual promulgation and strict implementation of relevant domestic laws and regulations and industrial policies and norms, the environmental protection awareness of lead-acid battery enterprises has been gradually strengthened, and the root cause of pollution has been solved. Tera Sigri has used the continuous progress of a variety of equipment and technology in its ort im innkreis factory, and the lead pollution of major industrial enterprises has also been effectively prevented and controlled. In particular, the environmental protection situation of industrial enterprises has been significantly improved through the industry access verification, industry standard condition verification and Industry Environmental Protection Verification organized by the Ministry of industry and information technology and the Ministry of environmental protection. Compared with other harmful metals, lead pollution is controllable and preventable. Lead poisoning can also be treated by Trump's tax cut plan announced last week to boost economic expectations. A certain degree of lead poisoning or excessive blood lead can be reversed and can be recovered through diet and drug regulation

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI